Analysis of the Hero's Journey in Avatar Essay
This chapter falls at about this essay's midpoint, and humanity's role in this story has yet to be told. As I conceived this essay, studied for it, wrote it, edited it, and had numerous allies help out, an issue repeatedly arose regarding the half of this essay just completed, and can be summarized with: "What was the point?" Not everybody asked it and some understood, but others wondered openly and sometimes subtly what the purpose of this essay's first half was (and some asked if the essay had any point at all and considered my effort a waste of time). This chapter is my reply, and I think it is important to understand.
The Hero's Journey Meets ELA Common Core Standards | …
Leaders in developing the concept of believe that an EROI of at least five, and closer to ten, is needed to run a modern civilization. The shale oil and tar sands that were touted in the first decade of the 21st century have EROIs of less than five and as low as two, and similarly promoted biofuels have an EROI of about one. Exploiting inferior energy sources is a classic resource depletion scenario that has played out numerous times during the human journey, as each energy resource was plundered to exhaustion, whether it was terrestrial megafauna, forests, soils, or whales. Industrial civilization is fast approaching the level where it cannot energetically sustain itself. Below is a chart of EROIs for various, mostly American, energy sources. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
Note to Readers: This essay is more easily navigated with a browser other than Internet Explorer, such as Firefox. This essay has internal links to this essay and to other essays on , with external links largely to and scientific papers. I have published this essay in other formats: (10.7 megabytes) and (the closest experience to reading a book), to honor different methods of digesting this essay, but this html version comprises the online textbook that I intended this essay to be.
My Climate Change | Issues in Science and Technology
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
Gender Difference in History: Women in China and …
The ultimate cause of the Permian extinction was probably the formation of a supercontinent. When Pangaea finally formed, new dynamics appeared. One was that there became only one major ocean, the , and the and nascent oceans were largely landlocked. Those would have become like lakes, with little current in them (the is the favored analogy today), and the (from which the Pacific Ocean eventually formed) did not have continents to divert them during their journey from the equator to the poles, so today’s circuitous would not have existed, which is shown below. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)