American identity essay - Allow us to help with your Master thesis
Civil society played a significant role in this constitutional change, and black and indigenous leadership were essential in inscribing non-whites into the charter. Manuel Zapata Olivella contributed greatly to this change, with his intense campaign to promote Afro-Hispanic culture in Colombia in particular, and in Latin America as a whole. In all of his work, be it at the , which he founded and directed, at the , or through novels such as (1983), Zapata Olivella sought to highlight the contributions made by people of African-descent. He recognized, however, that black contributions in Colombia (and in fact in the Americas as a whole) should not be limited to what existed in documents, especially because he was aware of their exclusion from memory, history, and scholarship. Zapata Olivella believed that oral history was a repository for the philosophy, behavior, and ideas of the oppressed, and thus a particularly relevant means through which to record and publicize black contributions. This belief motivated the project , which Zapata Olivella developed in cooperation with the Colombian Ministry of Education. The project dictated that, in order to graduate, high school students should conduct interviews with the elderly—the abuelos, or grandparents in Spanish—,often times illiterate members of their communities whose memories spoke to a variety of themes relating to Afro-Colombian practices and beliefs. Following the constitutional reform in 1991, Zapata Olivella designed an educational resource that sought to inform Colombians about their African roots and promote Afro-Colombian culture: the . This resource, developed by his Fundación, consisted of didactic materials such as tapes, pictures, slides, and texts exploring topics related to Colombia’s identity and history. The Enciclopedia Audiovisual could be by schools and other governmental organizations to instruct students or workers; there was also a version for radio broadcast and a that Zapata Olivella offered in his efforts to reach as many people as possible.
Military struggle and identity formation in Latin America :
Discussions about national identity in Latin America date back to the independence period, when local elites struggled to define the character of the new republics emerging from the Iberian Empires. Due to the high levels of miscegenation of colonial societies, race was central to the debates dealing with national identity. What would be the role of people of mixed descent in the new republican order? Were slaves and indigenous populations to be incorporated as citizens? Who could vote, and who was eligible to run for office? These were some of the questions at play during the Spanish American Revolutionary era and the independence era that followed.
Surveys major trends in slavery for virtually every colony in Latin America, including Haiti and the Dutch Caribbean. Strong on Brazil. Examines free-black life, slave resistance, and certain cultural influences. Great for general readers, undergraduates, and advanced scholars. Contains a useful bibliographic essay. Spanish version available through the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.