Use diagrams and a paragraph to explain.

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Also remember that the mantle is NOT made of magma.

The are positioned off the Malaysian coast. Sailors , as the natives killed anybody who landed and burned their bodies. The Andamans looked like African pygmies. The British established a penal colony on the Andaman Islands in the late 1700s, when about five thousand aboriginal Andamans lived on the main islands. The Andaman from the usual diseases, mayhem, and alcohol that Europeans brought with them, and they were nearly extinct within a century of British contact. . The genetic and other evidence has been used to make a convincing case that the aboriginal Andamans were island-dwarfed descendants of the original inhabitants. The Andaman Islands were never connected to the mainland, so the aborigines probably descended from people who stopped and stayed during that founder migration from Africa.

This is different from most of the other textbook files, which are in PDF format.

Also remember that the mantle is NOT made of magma.

As previously stated, shale oil and tar sands have abysmally low EROIs, which are , but are presented today as some kind of magic answer to the USA's energy problems (in 2015, the oil price collapse was caused by the easy money policies of the central banks, and ). But, what does that mean, as far as what a person could witness in such a declining civilization? The impact of Canada's tar sands operations can provide a preview. Not only do Canada's tar sands operations (Source: Wikimedia Commons – google "tar sands Mordor" and view the image results):

This is different from most of the other textbook files, which are in PDF format.

The Tethys Ocean was fully formed in the Jurassic and the , which led to rising sea levels. The shallow seas that began to reappear in the Triassic became as continental shelves were submerged. The began forming in the Jurassic, as , , and split, and the world-circling became the about the same time, although it is more of a convention among geologists than any dramatic change. Australia began to during the Jurassic. Mountain-building events continued unabated, and the , which began forming in the Triassic, .

Use this to help you remember what happens at different CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES.


Evaluate how plate tectonics theory helps our understanding of the

According to , oxygen levels rose in the Cretaceous and reached nearly modern levels by the end. But anoxic events also dotted the Cretaceous, probably related to rising sea levels. The lived in the Cretaceous and reached three meters in length. It was a deep-water species that probably formed symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic organisms, along with those other low-oxygen Mesozoic bivalves, and it went extinct as oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere and probably also in the seas.

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Sauropods were high grazers that ate tree ferns, cycads, and conifers as their staple. The dramatic radiation of ornithischians in the late Cretaceous coincided with the spread of angiosperms, and their chewing ability continually improved. Insects also dramatically diversified, as did birds and mammals, in an epochal instance of coevolution between plants and animals. Hive insects (bees, wasps, termites, and ants) began their rise when flowering plants did.

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Shell-cracking . By the late Cretaceous, . went extinct after 150 million years of existence, and declined. Those apex predators preyed on and sharks and ray-finned fish always seemed to do well. Some appeared in the mid-Cretaceous that . The largest sea turtles yet recorded lived in the late Cretaceous, .

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appeared in the Mesozoic and required oxygen to form calcium carbonate. They became so abundant in the high oxygen of the late Cretaceous that the rain of their bodies on ocean floors gave the its name: chalk (the Latin name). Calcium carbonate, the primary constituent of limestone, comes in two forms: and . The magnesium content in the oceans, as well as the ocean temperature, determines which form of calcium carbonate will dominate. The also marked the end of a 100-million-year ice age and gave way to about 200 million years of hot times. During , Earth has . That pattern also seems . Hot seas are generally and cold seas are usually . Calcite seas create , which influence the biome that forms. The and periods had vast carbonate hardgrounds, which disappeared during the and returned in the Greenhouse Earth age of dinosaurs, becoming common in the Jurassic. Today’s Icehouse Earth has aragonite seas, so organisms that form calcium carbonate shells use aragonite, which is less stable than calcite and its formation is sensitive to temperature and acidity. Coral reefs, key phytoplankton (which help produce Earth’s oxygen), and shellfish use aragonite today to form their shells. There is already that acidification of the oceans due to humanity’s burning of fossil hydrocarbon deposits to power the industrial age is interfering with the ability of coral, carbonate-forming phytoplankton, and shellfish to form their shells. That is only one of the industrial age’s many deleterious ecosystem impacts. The current aragonite-formation situation is not a theoretical construct of fearful environmentalists, but is a .