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Murphy, K. R., Barkley, R. A., Bush, T. (2001). Executive functioning and olfactory identification in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 15, 211-220.
Eric Bogosian and Travis Bogosian
The second half of the interview is spent deconstructing Tanner's amazing poem "Mormonism and Me," to really understand the inspiration behind such grammatical wizardry.
The question obviously arises as to whose assessment of the proband is more accurate. This would depend on the purpose of the assessment, but the prediction of impairment in major life activities would seem to be an important one in research on psychiatric disorders. Our Milwaukee study examined these issues by interviewing both the participants and their parents about ADHD symptoms at the young adult follow-up (age 21-years-old). It then examined the relationship of each source’s reports to significant outcomes in major life activities (education, occupation, social, etc.) after controlling for the contribution made by the other source. As noted earlier, another limitation in the earlier studies may reside in the DSM criteria in that they grow less sensitive to the disorder with age. Using a developmentally referenced criterion (age comparison) to determine diagnosis may identify more cases than would the DSM approach. As discussed earlier, the Milwaukee study found that the persistence of ADHD into adulthood was heavily dependent on the source of the information (self or parent) and the diagnostic criteria (DSM or developmentally referenced). Self-report identified just 5% to 12% of probands as currently ADHD (DSM-III-R) while parent reports placed this figure at 46% to 66%. Using the DSM resulted in lower rates of persistence (5% for proband reports and 46% for parents) while using a developmentally referenced cutoff (98th percentile) yielded higher rates of persistence (12% by self-report and 66% by parent reports). Parental reports appeared to have greater validity in view of their greater contribution to impairment and to more domains of current impairment than did self-reported information (Barkley et al., 2002; Barkley et al., 2008). We concluded that past follow-up studies grossly under-estimated the persistence of ADHD into adulthood by relying solely on the self-reports of the probands and using DSM criteria at adulthood; criteria developed only for children. As discussed above, using a childhood threshold for symptoms, such as six, with adults may be inappropriate whereas a lower threshold of four symptoms may be more accurate in detecting the disorder in older age groups. For instance, at a age 27 follow-up, persistence of disorder was estimated to be 65% to 86% depending on the rigor of the definition of recovery (Barkley et al., 2008)
MEN IN DARK TIMES - The Kitchen, New York City, 1982.
Draeger, S., Prior, M., & Sanson, A. (1986). Visual and auditory attention performance in hyperactive children: Competence or compliance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 411-424.
ADVOCATE - Artists Space, New York City, 1982.
Doyle, A. E., Faraone, S. V., DuPre, E. P., & Biederman, J. (2001). Separating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in girls: A familial risk analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1666-1672.
THIRTY-ONE EJACULATIONS, 1996. Internet post.
DuPaul, G. J., & Barkley, R. A. (1992). Situational variability of attention problems: Psychometric properties of the Revised Home and School Situations Questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 178-188.
Jo’s truly living the American dream.Links:Teacher’s History of U.S.
Douglas, V. I., & Peters, K. G. (1978). Toward a clearer definition of the attentional deficit of hyperactive children. In G. A. Hale & M. Lewis (Eds.), Attention and the development of cognitive skills (pp. 173-248). New York: Plenum Press.
“Sex, Drugs, Rock & Roll” – 1991. SBK Records. Out of print.
Douglas, V. I., & Parry, P. A. (1994). Effects of reward and non-reward on attention and frustration in attention deficit disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 281-302.
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DuPaul, G. J., Barkley, R. A., & Connor, D. F. (1998). Stimulants. In RA Barkley, ed., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 510-551). New York: Guilford.